Guide to creating dialog and test quizzes in QuizComposer

Topics:

Filling in the definition schema or form of a quiz

Dialog quizzes and test quizzes

The name of your quiz

Digit first in name

Image files

Information at top of page (author name etc.)

Heading for your quiz

Introduction to your quiz

Line continuation

Pick and paste

Repetition of introduction

Hyper Text Markup Language

QuizComposer Markup

Associating an image or document with a quiz

Specifying an image with width and height

Local name for file to be transferred

Question number or name

The question text

Specification of correct answers

Click-button answers

Checkbox buttons

Radio buttons

Keystroke answers

Single value answers

Numbers

Numberinterval

Logical expression for correct answer

Non-numbers

Alternative correct answers

Abbreviations

Approximative text answers

Regular expressions

Coordinate sets and complex numbers

Coordinate boxes

Multiple values in the same answer

Non-ordered sequence answer

Non-ordered sub-set answer

Order of comparisons

Ordered sequences

Ordered sequence in separate fields

Empty bracket in field specifying correct answer

Double bar || in specification of correct answer

Picking coordinates within an image

Answers with an optional text

Answering with an uploaded file

Answer with an algebraic formula

Answers checked by a local checking program

Hints for improving answers

Dynamic hints

Ordered dynamic post-hints

Corrective hints

Reward for a correct answer

Hyper-quizzes

Mathematical formulas

Mathematical formulas in TeX and MathML

Submission of form

Texts copied from another quiz

Text in front of question numbers or names

Fields: length, width, height

Characters after a question number or name

Text engraved on the submit button

Browser print icon

Message to a quiz participant stating the number of attempts to answer a question

Message to a quiz participant with all questions answered correctly

Message to a quiz participant answering a question correctly

Message to a quiz participant answering only one question and this answer being incorrect

Message to a quiz participant for an incorrect answer among a number of incorrect or missing answers

Optional specification of private logo

Specification of style for quiz

Specification of script file

Specification of a conversion table QCTeX->MathML

Weighting questions

Negative contributions to total score

Text requesting an optional identification for print

Quiz already answered

Checkbox at submit button not checked

Heading for results of submitted answers

Text in front of participants name

Text in front of number of incorrectly answered questions

Text in front of weighted results as a percent Text above list showing percentage mark obtained for each question

Transferring a list of participants for a test quiz

Password generation for participants in a test quiz

Submission of e-mails to participants in a test quiz

You probably arrived here from the introduction to a definition shema or form of a quiz. If you haven't read the introduction to the QuizComposer system, then it's probably best to do it now before using this guide.

When clicking a link in a definition form or schema you might land in a paragraph in this guide. The paragraph is about the the contents expected of the field next to the link.

As is apparent from the heading of this paragraph the oresent guide is for the use of a schema as well as the use of a form for defining a quiz. There are some differences between using a shema and a form.

With a schema you can utilize the options offered by a word processor to fill in the shema, for example as concerns colors and fonts for your text. Use a form if you are not comfortable with a word processor and you are satisfied with the options offered by an Internet browser.

In both cases the definition of a quiz concerns in filling in entry fields according to the rules below. The entry fields are identified differently in schemas and a form. In schemas the first column contains the identifiers for the fields in the same row in the second column. The identifier is the same text for you as for the quiz server. Overwriting an identifier makes the schema unreadable to the quiz server.

In forms the identifier for the quiz server is hidden in source code of the form and cannot be altered but each entry field has a preceeding text identifying that field for you. Other differences between using a schema and using a form will be mentioned below.

If this is the first time you use the form, it is recommended that you start out with a simple quiz, perhaps with only one question and later add more questions. Note the possibility of starting from the many examples and/or pasting parts of examples directly into the form by using the default copy facilities included with your browser, depending on the operating system of your computer (e.g. using CTRL-c og CTRL-v).

Mathematical formulas can be created as image files (for example by using one of the known software systems for mathematics, e.g. MAPLE or MATLAB, or simply by hand and utilizing a scanner) and transferring them to QuizComposer as image files, see also Transferring an image file.

Mathematical formulas can also be written in a TeX-like language or directly in MathML, see this guide which, however, can only be presented correctly by a browser capable of displaying mathematical formulas coded in MathML. A quiz containing such formulas can only be presented correctly with such browsers.

The following sections cover the functions of each entry field in a quiz definition form or schema.

A dialog quiz can either be specified to be answerable by anybody or specified to be answerable for registered anwerers only.

A test quiz can only be answered by registered anwerers.

You may register answerers if the page listing your quizzes and questionnaires contains a button for such registration (if the quiz server is iunder the control of a Learning Management System you cannot be certain to be able to register answerer since, unfortunately, the server may have been set up slightly incorrectly).

An owner of a quiz can always answer the quiz.

If you define your quiz using a schema state the name of your quiz when your schema is ready and do it in the form by which you fetched the schema originally. With forms this is the first entry field to fill in.

In both cases you create a copy of a quiz by just staing a new name, e.g. when you want to create a variant of the quiz.

The name of the quiz must be written with letters a-z and A-Z, digits 0-9 and, if you like, underline (_) or hyphen (-) between letters and digits. Do not start with an underline or hyphen. Using other characters will result in an error message, following which you will have to go back and correct he field.

Digit first in name
Skip this paragraph at first reading.
Quizzes with names starting with a digit, 1 say, are not included in lists of quizzes presented to potential quiz answerers (e.g. course participants). Thus, you can develop draft quizzes using names starting with a digit, since such quizzes will not be 'announced' publicly.

Notice that public quizzes (e.g. dialog quizzes and non-closed multiple-choice quizzes), with a name starting with a digit are visible on the Internet, i.e. they can be accessed via a browser, bt writing their Internet address in the browsers location field. Lists of names of public quizzes are hidden from the public, if possible, but on some servers they may become visible by writing in the location field the name of the folder (directory) containing the quizzes.

When the quiz is later presented to you an extension (.htm or .xml) may have been added to the quiz name indicating a property of the quiz, viz. the format in which the quiz is represented. You can ignore the extension.

Actually, the quiz name and the extension together constitute the name of the file containing the quiz. As you probably know, every single file on a computer belongs to a folder of files (and possibly sub-folders) which again may belong to a folder and so on. A so-called file path containing the list of folders in which the file is embedded specifies the position of the file on the computer. When a dialog quiz which is accessible to anybody with access to the quiz server is presented by the browser the Location field of the browser contains the Internet address of the quiz in the form of the file path and file name preceded by a the so-called domain name of the server which again is preceded by a so-called protocol. For quizzes accessible to anybody with access to the quiz server, when the quiz is presented to you by the browser the name of the quiz file is normally displayed in the Location field of the browser. Conversely, anybody writing the Internet address of your quiz file in the Location field (and pressing the RETURN or ENTER key) will result in your dialog quiz being presented.

Test quizzes are only accessible via appropriate forms.

A quiz may have associated files, for example files with a logo or with style properties (Cascading Style Sheet). Such associated files have (with certain exceptions mentioned below) the same name as the quiz file, but a different extension. For this reason the quiz name is sometimes refered to as the main name. Occasionally the word quiz covers the complete collection of files sharing a main name, the quiz file included.

Thus the main part of a file name indicates the quiz to which the file is associated. The extension indicates the type of the file.

Image files
Certain associated files, e.g. image files, are placed in in a sub-folder. The main part of the name of such a sub-folder is the main part of the name of the associated quiz.

In the In the entry field in the first row of a schema (Page_head) you can specify a page head with information about the author/owner of the quiz, for example:

Jones Johnson
Jonestreet 1
Jonestown

which will be left justified. Using a schema you can right justify the text using a word processor option. If you leave the field empty the quiz will get the QuizComposer standard top of page.

If you are defining your quiz with a form and you want the text right justified then write in the entry field:

<div align="right">
<table align="right"><tr><td>Jones Johnson
Jonestreet 1
Jonestown
</table>
</div>

If the quiz belongs to a collection of quizzes, for example for a course, with a common page head possibly containing an image it might be better to to use this possibility. In order to distinguish between these two possibilities for specifying a page head the latter is in short denoted a logo (although it includes informative text).

In the entry field in the second row of the definition schema (Heading) you may specify a heading for your quiz. The definition form contains a similar entry field.

The title that you chose for your quiz will also be displayed in the upper bar in your browser, when the quiz is presented. As regards the use of special characters such as &, < and > see the paragraph on Introduction... below.

In the entry field in the third row of the definition schema (Introduction) you may specify an introductory text. Use Shift key and Enter to start new lines.

With forms this is the first field allowing you to write multiple lines. In the resulting quiz there will, with certain exceptions, be line breaks in the same places as in your text (the result of insertion of HTML tags <br />).

Line continuation
If the last character on a line is & this line and the following line are regarded as one continuous line with that character left out, i.e. the line break is ignored. The same is true if the last character on a line is >, i.e. the line break is ignored.

Pick and paste
The introduction field and question phrase fields may contain any number of so-called pick lists. A pick list is specified by a brace containing a sequence of character strings separated by question marks. The following is an example of a pick list:
{I?you?he/she?we?they ? am?are?is}.

Each pick list will in the quiz be presented as a scrolled list box, for example:
.

The quiz answerer picks an element in a pick list by clicking it. A character string thus picked can be pasted into any entry field for an answer in the quiz by clicking the entry field.

Repetition of introduction
For a dialog quiz the next entry field in a definition schema allows ypu to specify that the introduction must be repeated together with unanswered or incorrectly answered questions. Write 1 or 0 for yes and no, respectively.

In a definition form for a dialog quiz a button below the entry field for the introductory text offers you the same option.

Hyper Text Markup Language
Since a definition schema is a text in HTML format you may view its source using an appropriate option in the word processor while editing the schema. In the source you can identify the HTML tags specifying the style properties of the resulting quiz. However, don't edit the source unless you are certain about the effect. You should rather stick to the options of your word processor when specifying style properties (font and color etc.) for your texts. Thus, you can skip the next paragraphs and proceed with the section QuizComposer Markup.

If you define your quiz using a definition form you should, unless you only wish to write simple question phrases, know a little about HTML. You can type-in arbitrary HTML elements in the field for the introduction to your quiz (and in many other entry fields of this form). For example you can insert an HTML element for inclusion of an image like:
<img src="http://www.abc.yz/q.d/fig1.gif">

Obviously, in HTML, the characters < > have a special meaning. They are start and end codes in HTML formatting tags. The effect of their presence in the text depends on their context, i.e. their surrounding characters, and of the browser displaying the text. With surrounding blanks the characters are usually displayed as written. But if you wish to have, say <, displayed with certainty as written you must enter it using the character sequence &lt;. This is HTML's code for the character < presented directly as written in your text. Likewise, the codes for > and & are &gt; and &amp;, respectively.

We are hereby entering the subject of codes (representation) in HTML for presentation of text and other matters. Unless you wish to write only simple questions and phrases in your quizzes, which may be a good idea for a start, you must know a little about HTML. You may gain such knowledge by studying these quiz examples and especially their source.

QuizComposer Markup
Apart from the tags in HTML QuizComposer itself utilizes mark-up expressed by [ ] { } $ and other special characters. Suppose a question phrase which must contain a click button. This is expressed in the text using the characters [ and ] or the characters { and } depending on whether the button is of the so-called checkbox type or the radio type. Likewise, the $-sign indicates in some contexts the start and end of a mathematical formula as explained in this instruction which, however, can only be presented correctly with a browser capable of displaying formulas in MathML.

The special characters can have different effects, QuizComposer-wise, depending on context, and in some contexts no special effect. In the latter case they are displayed as written. If this is just what you want try entering the character possibly surrounded by blanks. Or prefix the special character with an &. In the latter case the quiz server will replace the character pair with HTML's code for the special character for the browser to display it as written. Thus, for example, [ is substituted for &[.

One exception from this rule, hovever, is the character # because the character pair &# represents the start of the code for any possible character or symbol in HTML.

Not all browsers are able to display all special characters defined internationally or in a de facto standard such as Unicode. In particular this is true of mathematical symbols etc. If in doubt consult the guide for your browser.

The rules above concerning the effect of special characters is only valid for entry fields (or parts of entry fields) the contents of which are to be displayed to the quiz answerer. In other fields, e.g. the entry fields for specifying correct (or accepted) answers, other rules for special characters apply, ref. the sections below Specification of correct answers.

By writing in the introduction or in a question phrase, but outside an HTML element, a string of characters like abc.gif, for example, you specify that an image is to be inserted at that place. The first time you submit the definition you will be presented with a form which prompts you for an image file on your computer. The file must have the format you stated, in this case GIF. A copy of the file will be created on the server with the name abc.gif. It is associated with the quiz being defined.

Other permitted image file extensions are .png, .jpg and .swf corresponding to the PNG, JPEG and ShockWave formats, respectively.

This section is relevant mostly when a quiz is defined with a form rather than when using a definition schema. Assume that the quiz to which the image abc.gif is associated has the name q1. Suppose you want to include the same image in another quiz, say q2, without associating an image file with q2. You can do so by writing q1/abc.gif in the definition of q2 (outside any HTML element). Notice however, that the quiz will have a broken image in q2 if q1 is non-existent, for example because it has been deleted. However, this feature offers the possibility of associating a collection of image files with a "fake" quiz, a library, which may have some advantages.

By writing in the introduction or in a question phrase, but outside an HTML element, a string of characters like xyz.pdf or xyz.txt, you indicate that a link to a document file is to be inserted at that place. The first time you submit the definition form you will be presented with a form which prompts you for an text file having the format indicated by the extension, in these cases PDF (Portable Document Format) or simple unformatted text, respectively. A copy of the document file will be created on the server with the name you stated. The copy is associated with the quiz being defined.

There is currently no form for deleting an associated image or document. If you wish to associate with an existing quiz a new image or document file with an already used name like abc.gif or xyz.pdf apply the form mentioned in the next paragraph. You could instead use a new image or link name in the definition form and be prompted for a new associated file when submitting the form. Notice that it is easy to create a copy of an existing quiz. Just open the definition form of the latter and enter a new name in the first entry field. You will be promted for associated files, if any. By deleting the original quiz you'll get rid of the superfluous associated files. Please also see examples.

Document files to be transferred are either simple (unformatted) or in PDF-format. When a document file, say tf.txt or tf.pdf, has been transferred your quizzes can contain references formatted in HTML such as:
<a href="q/tf.txt">xxx</a> or
<a href="q/tf.pdf">xxx</a>
Here q is the name of the quiz and xxx is a text of your own choice.

If you wish the image to have a width and height of your own choice write abc.gif_w_h where w and h are integers specifying the width and height in pixels of the image, respectively. A question phrase with a single image specified using this format allows you to specify in the entry field for the correct answer that coordinate values for insertion in entry fields can be picked by clicking on the image.

It's important that you to specify the correct name for a file to be transferred. If there is a BROWSE...button (or similar) after the entry field then use this button. If there is an error in the specification, e.g. a surplus of blank spaces, nothing will be transferred and an error message (if any) will be displayed.

If a transferred file has an incorrect content, it may just show up in the quiz as an x or suchlike.

Defining a question
By default this entry field (Qstn_name_number_x in the schema) contains the number of each question (x) in succession. You may change the contents of the field to whatever you like, e.g. to a name (or title) for the question or to the HTML for an image or leave the field empty.

Note: in the resulting quiz and placed in front of 'the question number' the text that is defined in one of the last fields in the form is displayed. See Text in front of a question number. Obviously, you should alter this text if you do not use ordinary numbering, or you may delete it completely.

If you wish to alter the order of the questions you must in a definition schema carefully swap relevant numbers in the first column of the schema. In a definition form shuffle the numbers in two or more of the first short field among the fields for each question.

Write the question phrase in this entry field (Qstn_phrase_x in the schema). In the quiz the question phrase starts on the same line as the question number. If you want the question to start on the line following the question number then start the question phrase with an empty line.

This is a multiple-line text and your line breaks in the text will be retained, except as stated in Line continuation.
If you prefer the answer field to be placed on the next line, you should end the question phrase with a line break.

With difinition forms you can use HTML elements in the question phrase, see comments above on Hyper Text Markup Language text.

Note, the characters & $ { } [ ] have a special meaning in a question phrase. The special meaning does not apply if the character is preceded by an &. Text between two $ signs will be understood as special mathematical text according to this guide which can only be viewed with a browser capable of displaying MathML. A pair of braces {} or brackets [] enclosing a single letter, will in the resulting quiz be shown as a radio button or a checkbox button. You can read more about this further down the page. A bracket that is empty or contains a number or other text will in the resulting quiz be presented as an entry field for an answer, see about ordered sequences below.

Specify correct answers in this entry field (Correct_answer_x in the schema). You can define 2 kinds of questions which differ from each other by the type of the answer. In one of them the answerer is required to click one or more checkboxes. In the other, he/she must type the answer in an entry field. The latter is detailed below.

In dialog quizzes as well as test quizzes, you can define questions that are to be answered with optional text, i.e. questions for which no correct answer can be specified and the answers thus cannot be evaluated.

Click-button answers
Here the question is answered by clicking buttons. There are two types of buttons, viz. checkbox and radio buttons. A question phrase can contain only one type of buttons, if any. In a question with checkboxes more than one checkbox can be clicked (down) at the same time. In a question with radio buttons at most one can be clicked at a time. In a dialog quiz following presentations in the same session of a quiz will show correctly clicked buttons as clicked.

Checkbox buttons
You define a question to be of the checkbox type, by entering in the entry field specifying a correct answer one or more brackets each containing a lower case latin character and nothing else, e.g. [e]. (the maximum number of buttons in a question is thus 26). Each bracket in the entry field represents a clicked checkbox in the correct answer.

Radio buttons
You define that a question is of the radio button type, by entering in the entry field specifying a correct answer a single brace pair containing a lower case latin character and nothing else, e.g. {b}.

The question phrase itself should contain [] brackets or {} braces with a single letter inside, as just mentioned. Every such bracket pair is shown in the quiz as a checkbox (if you have defined the question to be of type checkbox as described). Every brace pair with a single lower case latin character is shown in the quiz as a radio button (if you have defined the question to be of the radio button type). There can be multiple buttons in each line. The letters inside the brackets in the question phrase must be chosen in alphabetical order .

Before the first button you would usually, using one or more lines, formulate the question itself (for example: Which of the following fruits are of the citrus variety?), while after each button insert the text which would mean a correct answer if the button is clicked (in our example, the name of a fruit - Orange for example). Between and after the button lines, ordinary lines may be typed without buttons.

Keystroke answers
If the question is of the type to be answered with a keystroke, for example, a number, specify the correct answer in the entry field for the correct answer. When comparing with the answerers answer, all superfluous spaces will be removed before a comparison is made. Thus, one or more spaces between answers, will automatically be replaced by one space and spaces in front and behind will be deleted.

Many special characters, among them @ { } [ ] and semicolon (;), have a special meaning in the entry fields for specifying correct answers. This is detailed in subsequent sections. Single value answers
Questions with keystroke answers must require either single value or multiple value answers. Answers are written as single values each in their own entry field.

A single value answer is either a number, a non-mumber, a coordinate sequence or an algebraic formula expression.

Numbers
Numbers are typed in with digits, decimal point and minus (-) but never plus (+). Use of a scale factor is on your own responsibility since the result may be machine dependent. Other characters are not allowed in numbers. Use non-numbers instead.

A number can be specified with an expression in the programming language Python (and other current programming languages) as for example 2/3. Any answer with the same value or almost the same value such as 4/6 or 1-2/3 or 0.6666666666666666, possibly with more decimals, be correct. The answer 0.666666666667 would probaly be incorrect.

The problem of precision stems from the limited number of decimals in the representation in hardware of numbers with decimals. See this note below about division sign in specifications and answers. The problem can be overcome by using the options detailed in subsequent sections.

Number values in a quiz answer should be written with digits, a possible decimal point, and a minus sign in front, where necessary. A comma between digits will automatically be replaced by a decimal point. Decimal comma is only permitted in answers.

Number interval
You can specify an interval for a correct value for a number by adding +- and a number, for example 1.33+-0.01, that specifies that an answer between 1.32 and 1.34, for example 4/3, will be accepted as a correct answer. Notice that the answer 1.32 would be ncorrect.

Likewise the symbol =+-= specifies an interval with boundaries included, and 12=+-=3 would thus specify the closed interval [9,15].

Note the possibility of specifying a correct number answer using a logical expression.

Logical expression of correct values
If you write a @ in the correct-value field the text will be understood as being an expression in the Python programming language. A @ represents the answerers response in the expression and this is taken as being a Boolean expression (in parentheses), the value of which will be computed. For example, if you write:
0.133 < @ and @ < 0.134
1/3 would be a correct answer. You might also have written 0.133 < @ < 0.134.
Finally, you could also have written, say:
math.fabs(@ - 1.335) < 0.005
The expression is written according to Python rules where comparisons are specified with the operators < <= == != <> >= >. The elements of an expression must be separated by space.
(Strictly speaking 1/3 in Python is equal to 0, as / specifies integer division when the operands are integers, but when replacing a @ with the answerer's response an integer in front of / will automatically be concatenated with .0, so that the answerer doesn't need to write 1.0/3).

There are 3 logical operators: and or not.

You can refer to the functions in the Python math-module using the format math.const or math.func() where const/func is the name of the constant/function, for example pi for the constant pi, cos for cosine and atan for arc tangent. The parenthesis must contain the appropriate argument(s).

Non-numbers
You may specify almost any sequence of characters as a concrete single value answer. An answer with exactly the same sequence of characters interspersed with any spaces will in most cases be taken to be correct.

Examples of such correct-specs are 5pct, 5% and 3x+5/4.

Exceptions concern the number and type of entries for an answer.

You can specify deviations from the basic sequence characters in different ways as described in what follows, for example as alternative correct text answers, approximative text answer, regular expression or algebraic expression.

The first example above may be specified with ~ ^.~5pct, whereby also the answer
5 PCt.
would be correct.

Alternative correct answers
A sequence of character strings separated by question marks specifies a set of equally correct single answers, for example room?space?cabin. Any space at the beginning and end and around the question marks are ignored.

Notice that the format of the specification of a set of alternative answers differs from the spefication of a so-called pick list and that the effects are quite different.

Abbreviations
If a non-number in a correct-answer field ends with a period (dot, same as decimal point), it will be taken to indicate an abbreviation. When comparing an answer, only the characters in front of the period will be compared. This also applies to individual non-numbers in a word sequence.

Approximative text answers
A specification of a correct answer that starts with a tilde (~) followed by zero, one or more of the nine characters in this parenthesis (^ ,.+-*%$) followed by a tilde defines the correct answer to be the trailing text with these options:

  • a ^ between the tildes results in the case of latin letters being ignored in answers,
  • a space, comma, dot, plus, minus, *, % or $ between the tilde signs means the corresponding character may be included or left out in answers.
Space before and after the text and the answer is always ignored.

An example:
~ +$~12.34$
which can be answered correctly with:
+12.34$ or 12.34 $.

Another example:
~ ,.^-King Alfred then said, where is my sword.
can be answered correctly with:
kINg ALFRedthensaid where       ismySWORD
This type of specifier allows you to write the text of the answer in the most "natural" way and still permit the answer some freedom.

For incorrect answers in dialog quizzes the rules for corrective hints apply. The corrective hints are based on the specification of the correct answer.

Regular expressions
A specification which starts with a ^ will be understood to be a pattern that follows the rules for socalled Regular Expressions in the Python programming language. However, brackets and braces are not permitted in a specification of an answer part in a sequence or subset. Question marks are not permitted in a regular expression in a set of alternatives.

A correct answer for the pattern:
^(B|b)rian
would be Brian or brian, while the pattern
^Brian.*
matches all the character sequences that start with Brian, for example Brian Ferry.

Yet an example of a regular expression is:
^(?i)brian$
which is matched by brian written with lower or upper case letters, e.g. bRiaN. However, you would probably prefer specifying ~^~brian, see above.

Coordinate sequences and complex numbers
A coordinate sequence specifies a point written as a sequence of numbers separated by underscores., e.g. -1.23_4.56. No space and no plus sign is permitted in a coordinate sequence. A coordinate sequence can be entered as a scalar (single value) answer or as an answer element in a multiple value answer. Specifying a coordinate sequence as as correct value is not permitted. Use a coordinate box instead.

Coordinate boxes
A coordinate box specifies a rectangular domain having a central coordinate written as sequence of open intervals, e.g.
-1.23+-0.1_4.56+-0.2.
Use a coordinate box to specify that an answer having the form of a coordinate sequence is correct when each coordinate is within its corresponding interval.

An answer to a question may be an ordered sequence, an un-ordered sequence or a subset. (A set is the mathematical expression of a collection of elements having no ordering - a non-ordered sequence might therefore also be denoted a set).

Where convenient, elements of an ordered or non-ordered sequence or subset are denoted answer parts. In an ordered sequence, the order of the elements is ofcourse important. Each answer part in a sequence or subset must have a format for either a number, a non-number, a coordinate sequence or an algebraic expression as described below. An answer part cannot be an ordered or un-ordered sequence or subset.

Non-ordered sequence answer
In a correct-answer field in a definition form, a non-ordered sequence is specified with braces the elements being separated by a character pair }{ such that each element is enclosed in braces, for example:
{ 1+-0.1 }{ -5+-0.1 }.

Each element specifies a correct answer part. In a non-ordered sequence the order of the elements of the correct-value-specification and the answer parts is in principle unimportant, but see below.

Entry fields will be generated in the question phrase, if not specified.

Subset answer
A subset is specified as a non-ordered sequence except for an addition to the opening brace { of a period followed immediately by the number of elements required in the answer. For example, a correct answer for the specification {.2 dog }{ cat }{ horse }{ tiger }{ lion } would be any two of the animal names in braces.

Entry fields will be generated in the question phrase, if not specified.

Order of comparisons
For un-ordered sequences and sub-sets, a comparison of a stated answer with the specified correct answer takes place as follows. First, for each element in the correct-sequence a search is made for a similar element in the answer-sequence. Matching elements and answer parts are ignored after this step. Next, the remaining elements in the correct-sequence are compared with each remaining answer elements until an answer element that matches the correct answer is found or there are no more answer parts to check. Elements and answer parts are checked in the order specified.

Ordered sequences
An ordered sequence is specified using brackets with elements separated by the character pair ][ such that each element is bracketed like in this example:
[ abc ][ 3.5+-0.5 ][ @ > 0 ]

Ordered sequence in separate fields
If the question phrase contains brackets which are either empty or contain an integer (a sequence of digits only) the n'th of these will, in the quiz, be replaced by an entry field for the n'th element of the answer. If the bracket contains a number this is taken as the length of the entry field (i.e. the number of characters in the answer visible at the same time). An empty bracket gets a standard length (ca. 15 characters). An example of such a question phrase is:
Authors surname [6] Name of work [].
to which the correct answer might be:
[Dinesen ][ Seven Gothic Tales ]

A question phrase having one or more brackets containing other characters than digits and space will be displayed with an entry field for each bracket with each field containing the text in the bracket. The correct answer for each field will be the specified value in the corresponding part in the specification of correct answers in the field below. The answerer should thus alter the texts in the fields in the question phrase by inserting characters in the right places.

If the number of brackets with numbers or text in the question phrase is less than the number of required answer elements (according to the specification of the correct answer) missing brackets for input fields will be added to the question phrase.

When the answer is being checked, answer parts and correct spec elements are compared in pairs and in order.

The post hint for such a question can be a ordered sequence of corrective hints.

Empty bracket specification
If the specification of the correct value takes the form of an empty bracket like in [], every bracket in the associated question phrase will be replaced by an entry field and the correct value specification will be understood as representing an ordered sequence with elements similar to the values within the brackets in the question phrase (except for any ||-pair, see below). For example, the question phrase:
Author name [Isak Dinesen] A film based on one of her works [Out of Africa]
will be presented with entry fields for [Isak Dinesen] and [Out of Africa]. The hint field of the question may have contents as described in the previous paragraph containing, for example, corrective elements as in:
[ {^++} ][ {++++} ].

Double bar || in specification of correct answer
A ||-pair in a text between brackets, as in [Is||ak Dinesen], will result in the text before the ||-pair, here Is, being displayed in the corresponding entry field as the start of a correct answer.

Picking coordinates within an image

A question phrase containing a single image specified with width and height may in the corresponding entry field for correct answers specify a sequence or subset with a first element containing a coordinate span box. A coordinate span box is specified with 4 numbers using this format:
xmin:xmax_ymin:ymax, for example:
-5:10_-1:3.5. The four numbers specify the low and high boundary for the first coordinate and the low and high boundary for the second coordinate in the image, respectively.

A question phrase and corresponding specification of correct answers permits the answerer to pick points by clicking on the image. The coordinates of the point will be displayed in a dialog box on the screen. Subsequent clicking an entry field will copy the coordinates of a just picked point into the entry field.

The rest of the entry field for correct answers following the coordinate span must contain coordinate box elements like in this example which specifies a correct answer to be an ordered sequence of two points:
[-5:10_-1:3.5][-2.5+-0.2_1.5+-0.1][2.9+-0.2_-0.5+-0.1].
The first coordinate box in this example (i.e. the second element of the sequence) specifies that correct answers are points with coordinates x,y for which:
-2.7 < x < -2.3 and 1.4 < y < 1.6.

An example specifying a correct answer to be two points from two different sets of points out of three is:
{.2 -5:10_-1:3.5}{-2.5+-0.2_1.5+-0.1}{2.9+-0.2_-0.5+-0.1}{5+-0.2_2+-1}
because the very first character { is followed immediately by .2.

As is common for ordered sequences, instead of specifying the coordinate boxes in the entry field for correct answers you may specify them in the question phrase. But coordinate span boxes must always be specified in the entry field for correct answers.

In dialog quizzes as well as test quizzzes a specification of a correct answer may be a ? sign alone. This indicates that the answer will be text which is not to be evaluated by the quiz server. The answer is presented to the quiz organizer together with the other results of the quiz.

If an answer is specified as ?.xxx where the extension .xxx is one of the following:
.txt, .pdf, .gif, .png, .jpg, .svg,
the answer must be a file on the answerers computer uploaded to the quiz server. The file must have the format indicated by the extension, for example in the case of .svg a drawing (an image) in scalable vector graphics. A browse button by which the answerer can search for the file will appear next to the answer field .

Questions to be answered with a file upload are permitted solely in dialog and test quizzes answerable by registered answerers only.

Expect a limit on the size of answer files.

Many questions within applied natural science can be answered with simple algebraic formulas. To facilitate the use of quizzes with such questions on all servers the QuizComposer system is provided with an analyzer for a simple algebraic language QCmath. If you wish to write quizzes to be answered with more complicated formulas you must use a server with access to a more advanced mathematical analyzer, see below.

A specification of a correct answer to a question to be answered with an expression in QCmath starts with !qcmath, and its format is:

!qcmath correct_answer

where correct_answer represents an expression within the demanded group of equivalent formulas. Three examples of such specifications are:
!qcmath b^2 - 4*a*c
!(qcmath -b + sqrt(d))/(2*a)
!qcmath sqrt( (xb - xa)^2 + (yb -ya)^2 )

You may add so-called excluders to !qcmath, see below.

Notice that for a function call in an algebraic expression, see the second example above, an argument can only be either a name, not an expression. Think of the function call as a name.

Your current quiz server may have been installed with one or more programs external to the base program suite of QuizComposer, programs that can be called to check an answer against a specification of the correct answers to a question. An example might be the checking of an expression by applying mathematical software such as MAPLE, see examples. or comparing an answer with data in a database. Contact your quiz server administrator about any such local checkers not included in the QuizComposer base suite.

A specification of correct answers to a question to be checked by a checker program starts with an exclamation mark (!) and the format is:
!program_name correct_answers
!program_name!ex correct_answers

where program_name is a sequence of letters, digits or underscore (check with your quiz server administrator) and ex is a sequence of socalled 'excluders' separated by !-marks. An excluder is a sequence of non-blanks and non-!-marks. Examples of specifications are:
!prog1!diff sin(x)
!prog1!diff!int!sin 1/tan(x+y)

Each excluder specifies a character string to be excluded in the answer. In the simple cases when an excluder contains only letters, digits or underscore (and certain other special characters), if an answer contains such a character string it will be rejected by QuizComposer without calling the checker program. Actually, however, an excluder is a socalled 'regular expression', i.e. a specification of character patterns, and certain special characters such as dot (.) and asterisk (*) have thus a special meaning in excluders. Use only special characters in excluders if you are certain of their meaning in socalled 'regular expressions' in the Python programming language. For example, specifying:

!prog![0-9\-\+] correct_answer

will exclude answers containing a digit or a minus sign or a plus sign.

For each question hints may be specified in the special entry field provided.

In an entry with more than one line the n'th line specifies the n'th hint, i.e. the hint after the n'th incorrect answer to the question. The last line specifies the the hint for any following incorrect answers to the question.

There are two kinds of hints, viz. static hints and dynamic hints. By specifying a dynamic hint for a question you can present hint texts which depend on the answer to the question or on the number of incorrect answers of a question hitherto.

A static hint consists of the text to be presented only. A dynamic hint may contain several hint texts each preceded by a condition for displaying the text.

A hint text may contain HTML elements, perhaps a reference to a text or image. A hint text is presented with every @ character replaced by the current answer. For a colon (:) in a hint text enter the HTML entity reference &#58;.

Hints in quizzes which present mathematical formulas may themselves present mathematical formulas. A formula must be separated from the previous $-sign by space.

Dynamic post-hints
can be specified for questions to be answered with a scalar (i.e. a number or a character string) or the clicking of one or more buttons. Dynamic post hints can also be specified for questions to be answered with an ordered sequence of values, i.e. a question with separate entry fields for scalar values. Dynamic post hints for ordered sequence answers are described further down. Dynamic post hints are not permitted for questions to be answered with a non-ordered sequence or sub-set.

A dynamic post hint has the format:
:: u1 : t1 :: u2 : t2 ....
where each un is a logical expression and each tn is a static hint as specified above (thus each expression is preceded by a double colon and each hint text by a single colon). The format of the expression depends on the type of the answer (i.e. the correct value). (Each un might equally well be regarded as a condition and the word expression has been prefered only to be able to speak of it as being true or false rather than speaking of a condition being met or not).

The expressions are evaluated in sequence until the first expression with the value true. In each logical expression any character @ is replaced by the answer or answer element enclosed in a parenthesis. An empty expression (normally the last) has the value true.

A logical expression may take the form #n where n is a number. Its value is true if n is the number of the current answer to the question. For example, a hint entry field with a single line:

:: #5 : The correct answer is Africa ::: Try again

prompt for a new answer up to 3 times.

If the correct value entry field specifies a number (or number interval) then the expressions in a dynamic hint text should be written according to the rules for logical expressions in the programming language Python. For a dynamic hint text such as:
:: @ < 1 : answer too small :: @ > 2 : @ is too large a number ::: you are getting hot!
the answer 0 would result in the hint: answer too small
whereas the answer 3 would result in: 3 is too large a number
and 1, if it is wrong, would result in: you are getting hot
The elements of an expression must be separated by space.

If the question is of the click button type, i.e. the correct value entry specifies a click button pattern (e.g. [a][c]) then the expressions in a dynamic hint text each consist of a lower case latin letter, possibly preceded by a minus sign, e.g. -b. If there is no minus sign and if the button corresponding to the letter has been clicked the hint text following the expression is displayed. Conversely, if the letter is preceded by a minus sign: if the correspong button was not clicked the hint text following the expression is displayed.

If the correct value entry field specifies a character string, e.g. cat, then the expressions in a corresponding dynamic hint have the form of a socalled Regular Expression, i.e. a character pattern according to the rules of Python. These expressions may, however, be preceded by a minus sign. Actually this will often be the case. If in an expression there is no preceeding minus sign and if the character pattern appears in the answer the hint text following the expression is displayed. If there is a preceeding minus sign and if the character pattern does not appear in the answer the hint text following the expression is displayed. If for example the expression is ^ca and if a wrong answer starts with ca the hint text following the expression is displayed. If the expression is -^ca and if a wrong answer does not start with ca the hint text following the expression is displayed.

The correctness of a dynamic hint text should be checked thoroughly. If an expression is incompatible with a possibly correct answer it may happen, that the answerer sees the whole hint displayed together with an error message (the quiz author can only check his/her quiz by being an answerer).

Dynamic post-hints for ordered sequences
As previously stated the hint for the n.th incorrect answer must be specified on the n'th line, or the n.th if n > number of lines. The format of a dynamic post hint for an ordered sequence is a sequence of elements each taking the form of a dynamic post hint for a scalar answer as described above. The elements of the sequence are separated by semicolons and the sequence is enclosed in a pair of brackets [ and ].

For example, the following dynamic post hint:
[:: @ < 0 : the number is positive ][ :: -^c : the word starts with c :: -t$ : the last letter of the word is t ]
will, if the first answer element is negative or zero, result in the answerer being told that the answer must be positive. If the second answer element does not start with the letter c or does not end with the letter t an appropriate notice is issued.

A hint for a answer element is presented only if the answer element is non-empty and incorrect.

Corrective hints
The text for a post hint may contain socalled corrective elements (or simply correctives) represented by a curly brace containing one or more of the characters ^.+-$ in any number and order. The hint will be displayed with the brace replaced by a sequence of characters composed by comparing the actual answer with the (specificaton of the) correct answer.

Correctives have this effect only in hints for answers to be typed in an input field and only when the specification of the correct value is a number, e.g. 12.345 or a simple character sequence, e.g. thursday. A specification for a character sequence may, however, have a leading ^(?i) which will be ignored in the comparison. (As examplified above (^?i) specifies that the answer can be written in lower or upper case). Correctives can appear as elements of ordered sequences and in dynamic hints, including dynamic hints in ordered sequences. Correctives cannot be used with correct value specifications in the form of expressions (such as 1 < @ < 2 ) or intervals (such as 12+-2) or character patterns, such as (The *)? Earth.

Presently, correctives can only appear in quizzes in HTML, not quizzes with mathematical formulas in XHTML.

The following are examples of corrective elements for the answer thirsta to the correct value thursday:
{.} will be replaced by th.rs.a. with wrong or missing characters being replaced with a dot
{+} will be replaced by thurs.a? with wrong characters being replaced with a dot and each + replacing one wrong character with a correct character during either a forward or a backward scan and missing trailing characters indicated by a question mark (see more below), so that
{++} results in thursda?
{^^} is replaced by th as n ^ display the n first characters, so that
{^^^.} is replaced by thurs.a.
{$$$} is replaced by day as n $ display the n last characters, thus
{.$$} is replaced by th.rs.ay
{} is replaced by the correct value, i.e. thursday
The character - indicates no hint so that {-} is replaced by the answer itself, i.e. thirsta.

No space is permitted in a corrective.

The answer and the correct value are both scanned forwards and backwards and the direction with the largest number of correct characters is chosen. Backward scan may be important when, for example, one or more characters are missing in the answer.

The number of corrective elements must either be the same as the number of elements in the answer or be one as in [ {++} ]. In the latter case the given corrective element will be used on all answer elements.

When a question is answered correctly it is displayed once again together with a text as decribed below, and with the text in this entry field. The text may (as other texts to be displayed) contain an HTML tag for an image, say.

Notice that the text in the present field is not displayed when all the questions have been answered correctly, see below.

A hyper-quiz differs from an ordinary quiz in several ways. Only dialog quizzes can be defined as hyper-quizzes. A dialog quiz is specified to be a hyper-quiz by clicking a certain checkbox either in its definition form,if any, or in the form by which the quiz is created from a schema. It may be advantageous to defer clicking the hyper-quiz checkbox (thereby defining the quiz to be a hyper-quiz) and instead first check out the quiz as an ordinary dialog quiz.

First, only one question is displayed at a time starting with the first question. Next, in the definition form, an entry field for a hint and an entry field for a reward for a question must specify what is to be displayed next. This may be a question in the same quiz, another of your dialog quizzes, any resource on the Internet or almost any short text in (X)HTML.

When a question is answered incorrectly the question is presented once again unless the appropriate hint starts with a question number. Then the latter is presented together with any remaining part of the hint following the number. An example: 3 Try to answer this question, then.

See below about presentation of another quiz or document.

When a question is answered correctly the quiz continues according to its reward field. If this starts with a question number that question is presented together with any part of the reward following the number. If the reward field does not start with a number the next question, if any, is presented.

If the reward field starts with a zero (0) or if there is no question following the last correctly answered question the quiz stops and one or two texts are displayed, viz. any text described in message and any text in the reward field. Otherwise, see below.

Notice, that if no hints and no reward fields start with a number the questions are presented one by one in their order.

The hint field can have a dynamic format as layed out for dynamic post hints. The effect of a condition (that which follows the : after the logical expression) can be a number possibly followed by a text. As explained above, if there is no number the same question will be presented again. Contrary to the case for an ordinary dialog quiz no difference is made between the first and any following presentations of a question.

To have another of your dialog quizzes (x) presented start the hint field or reward field with x.htm or x.xml according to its markup language.

Any resource on the Internet is specified in starting with a protocol name in the form of a letter sequence followed by a colon (:), for example http://www.somesite.xy/blabla.htm.

Any text following a space following the question or quiz to be displayed will be displayed as a hint or reward in the current quiz and question. An example of such a text could be: Return to this quiz... If no such text is specified an default message, if any, will be displayed.

Mathematical formulas in a quiz can be defined in two ways. A formula created using a word processor is represented by an image placed in the same folder as your schema. The schema contains a reference to the image. When the quiz is created the image is transferred to the server. Please read this paragraph about insertion of images. Take a look at this and this paragraph for alternative ways of creating formulas in quizzes.

Pretty mathematical formulas in a quiz may be created by ticking in the definition form the check box for presentation of such formulas and writing the formulas according to ASCIIMathML. When defining the quiz with a schema write 1 in the corresponding field.

If the checkbox for mathematical formulas in MathML is clicked the entry fields for the introductory text, the question phrases may contain formulas written as indicated in this guide. The quiz [or questionnaire] will then be generated according to the XHTML standard, which includes the possibility of MathML-elements. Please notice, if you wish to add XHTML-elements that XHTML which is based on the XML standard is much stricter than HTML. For example, in XHTML all tag names must be written in lower case letters (whilst in HTML you may use lower or upper case as you wish). Notice too, that line breaks are written as <br /> and that paragraphs are introduced with <p> and exited by </p> (the <P> in HTML may be written as <p></p>).

Avoid writing for example {a} eller [a] in a formula as such (in fact unnecessary) constructs will be taken to be buttons. Buttons are only permitted outside formulas.

Clicking this button will send your form to the quiz server for handling and unless there is an error in your quiz definition, the quiz will then be shown to you. Notice, for dialog quizzes, the quiz address, see field "Location" over the quiz. It is this address that you must communicate to the persons who are to answer the quiz (unless you are registered in such a way that answerers can get a list of your public dialog quizzes) .

Before you click the button for submitting your quiz definition, you should take a look at the entry fields following after that button. Are there any of them which you would like to complete, perhaps the entry field with your name and address, or the entry fields with possible messages to the quiz answerers. This is especially important when creating a foreign language quiz, as it is these fields that the answerers receive from the quiz server.

When the quiz is presented, you can back-click on your browser to go back and modify your quiz form thereby redefining your quiz.

Texts to be presented to answerers and which are specified in the last part of the definition form can be copied from another quiz. Write in this entry fields (in the definition form positioned after all questions and the submit button) the name of the quiz from which these texts should be copied.

After submitting the current definition form (the current definition schema) return to the page listing your quizzes and questionnaires and call forth the new definition form (possibly after a reload). You will, in the form, see the texts for the new quiz and you can alter them if you like.

This option is particularly practical when creating quizzes for answerers speaking a foreign language.

For clearness, definition schemas contain no fields for the said specifications. Use a definition form, possibly one in which you write nothing but these specs, no questions.

Above the question number field options are described. Insert in the current entry field any short text that you may want before the question number or name, for example Question, Quest. or Frage nummer, for example.
You may also leave it empty, if you wish.

You can change the standard sizes shown. These are the number of characters but be careful only to use numbers and to separate with blanks.

Write in the sign that you want after the question number or name. Full stop (.) or colon (:), or if you need a space between this character and the question text, write &nbsp;. If you want a new line write <BR>. You may leave the entry field empty if, for example, you use images etc. instead of question numbers or names.

This applies to test quizzes only.
You write here the text that will be in front of/over the button with which the answerers submit their answers to the quiz server for evaluation.

Notice, that a quiz is submitted when an answerer presses the Enter button while the browsers cursor has been clicked into and remains in a single-line entry field. This is true for all browsers.

Write here the text to be displayed on the button which the answerer clicks to submit the answer to the quiz server.

Participants in the quiz may like to know that their browser's print icon will print-out a copy of the form, complete with answers.

This applies to dialog quizzes only.
When all questions have been answered correctly each question is presented once again with the last answer stated. If the text contains the character pair %% this is replaced with the number of the correct answer (answers being numbered from 1 up).

This applies to dialog quizzes only.
When all questions have been answered correctly, unless for hyper-quizzes, they are presented once again. The text in this entry field is placed before the introduction. If the text contains the character pair %% this is replaced with the total number of incorrect answers.

The first time a question is answered correctly the question is displayed once again together with the text in this entry field.

This applies to dialog quizzes only.
When only a single question is answered and the answer is incorrect the question is presented again together with the text in this entry field.

This applies to dialog quizzes only.
The character string you write in the entry field is presented to the quiz participant in an HTML page when one or more questions are being presented again because one or more questions were answered incorrectly or not answered at all.

This paragraph is relevamt mainly when a quiz is defined using a definition form. When using a schema utilise the options offered by the word processor.

Using a form accessible from the page listing your quizzes etc. you can define a logo and associate it with a quiz (or questionnaire). You can also define a common logo. Logos are placed at the start of a quiz/questionnaire.

In the current entry field of the definition form you can write the name of a quiz (or a questionnaire) with an associated logo. If the entry field is empty and the quiz being defined has an associated logo, that logo is used. Otherwise if a common logo has been defined, that is used, and else, QuizComposers logo.

This paragraph is relevamt mainly when a quiz is defined using a definition form. When using a schema utilise the options offered by the word processor.

You can place a style specification in your quiz or (unless you are creating a trial quiz) a reference to a file containing a style specification. Such specifications are called "style sheets", more exactly "Cascading Style Sheets" or CSS. Amongst other things, these specifications may describe the size, shape and colour of the quiz texts.

Clicking the browser button "View" and selecting "Page Source" (or similar) will reveal the the source text of a quiz. You will see that the texts of the quiz are surrounded by HTML tags <DIV> and </DIV> , <SPAN> and </SPAN>. You might notice as well, that after DIV and SPAN there's written class="xxx". The xxx is a so-called property name. When the quiz is displayed, your browser searches for a CSS and retrieves the specification for an element with a property name and how it should be displayed.

Via the page listing your quizzes etc. fetch a form for defining a CSS and associate it with a quiz (or questionnaire). You can also define a common CSS.

In the current entry field of the definition form you can write the name of a quiz (or a questionnaire) with an associated CSS. If the entry field is empty and the quiz being defined has an associated CSS, that CSS is used. Otherwise if a common CSS has been defined, that CSS is used, and else, the standard CSS for QuizComposer.

In your quiz you can (unless it is a trial quiz) insert a link to a script with program code in written in JavaScript. You may then write, in the introduction field and the question fields, single lines in program code that use variables and functions defined in the script or script file. Such lines must be enclosed in HTML tags <script> and </script>.

You define a script and its association to a quiz/questionnaire with a form to which you have access via the page listing your quizzes etc.

In the current entry field of the definition form you can write the name of a quiz (or questionnaire) with an associated script to which a link should be created. If the entry field is empty and if the quiz being defined has an associated script a link to that script is created. Otherwise, if a common script has been defined, a link to that script is created.

Following a space after the name of a quiz with an associated script you can write any comment. If the field contains the word on_submit the script is expected to contain a function with that name and with a parameter for the form element of the quiz form. The function could, for example, perform a check of the the values entered into the fields of the quiz form.

An example of a simple on_submit function (with no checking) is:

function on_submit(form) { alert("By clicking OK you submit " + form.htmlfile.value ) }

The function will be called when the answerer submits the quiz. If the return value of the function call is false the browser will not send the quiz answer to the server.

About QCTeX->MathML, see this guide.

Via the page listing your quizzes etc. you can have a form presented with which you can define a conversion table QCTeX->MathML. The table can be common for your quizzes or be associated with a quiz.

If, in the current entry field, you write the name of a quiz with an associated conversion table the quiz being defined will be created using this table. If the quiz is defined as containing mathematical formulas and the entry field is empty the quiz will be compiled with its associated table, if such a table exists. Otherwise, the quiz will be compiled with a common conversion table, if such a table has been defined. Or else the quiz will be compiled with the standard conversion table for QuizComposer.

This applies to test quizzes only.
For questions with only a single answer part, an integer between 0 - 100 may be inserted, as weighting occurs as a percentage. This number represents the weighting of the individual question in relation to the total response for the quiz. (The weighted correctness of the response).

For questions with click-buttons, a single number (integer) or an integer (a weighted part) for each button may be used. If precisely one single number (integer) is used, then this is the weighting for the whole question. If any button in the question is incorrectly clicked, the contribution to the total result will be 0.

If a question's weighting is spread over several weight parts, the weighting for a button, which should not be clicked, may be negative (so that clicking a button, which should not be clicked, gives a negative contribution to the weighted result for that question). You can enclose a sequence of weighted parts in a parenthesis. as in the following example of weighting:
20   (   10   -20   0   )   5   15
The contribution from the group of weights within the parenthesis will be the least of the clicked buttons weight, or zero if none of the buttons in the group have been clicked. This is useful in cases where only one in a sequence of buttons should be clicked (for example in this answer: yes, no, don't know). The other buttons in a sequence may have a negative (penalty) weighting or a (neutral) zero weighting.

The number of positive weight percentages should be equal to the number of brackets in the specification of correct answers.

The contribution from a single question to the total score can be negative only if a button at the top of the definition form has been clicked.

For questions with answer parts (set answers): you can write in the weighting field either a single number (integer) or as a minimum, as many numbers (integers) as there are parts in the correct answer. If you write one single number in the entry field, any incorrect answer of the question will result in a zero. This would also apply to an answer with a wrong number of answer parts.

If there are multiple weighted parts, there should be as many positive (weightings) as there are parts in the correct answer.

The negative weight parts are a penalty percent for superfluous answers. These take on a special significance in non-ordered sequences, as the complete answer will always be scanned for correct part answers. If you apply negative weight parts, the quiz answerer will have an opportunity to increase his/her chances of obtaining a correct answer by adding-on extra answer parts (but an answerer will be negatively penalized by the negative weight parts). If there are more answer parts than weight parts, the final weight part will, if it's a minus or zero, be utilized for each of the surplus answer parts. Penalties may be limited by adding a final zero (0) weight part. You may limit the effect of surplus answer parts by adding negative weight parts the sum of which is equal to or greater than the sum of positive weight parts.

In this way and please see the examples below, it's up to you, as the quiz author to weight the surplus part answers negatively. This applies also to ordered sequences where it is often normal, but perhaps not always, to assign a zero (0) to an answer with surplus parts.

Example 1: for a non-ordered sequence, a weighting of 30 20 -10 -40 would result in 30% for one correct answer, 50% for two correct part answers, but 10% would be subtracted if there is just one surplus part answer. 0% would be assigned to an answer with several surpluses regardless of the number of correct parts contained in the answer.

Example 2: for a non-rdered sequence, a weighting 30 20 -10 -5 0 for one surplus answer part would result in a reduction of 10% and for two or more surpluses, 15%.

Example 3: for an ordered sequence, a weighting of 20 30 will give 20% if only the first part answer is correct, 30% if only the second part answer is correct and 50% if both are correct. Any surplus answer parts would result in 0%. A 20 30 -15 weighting reduces each surplus answer by 15%. With a weighting of 20 30 -45 an answer with a surplus would contribute with at most 5%.

The sum of the weights for all of the questions (the sum of positive weights) should be 100. The quiz server checks this.

This applies to test quizzes only.
Questions with checkbox and radio buttons can contribute negatively to the the total score, but only if this checkbox has been clicked. Otherwise, if the computed weight contribution of a question is negative the contribution is set to 0.

Any non-empty text in this entry field will create an entry field in the resulting dialog quiz in which an answerer of the quiz can write any text by which the answer can be identified when printed. If this entry field is empty no identifier entry field will be created.

This applies to test quizzes only. Enter the message to be displayed to a participant who has already answered the quiz (a test quiz may only be answered once).

This applies to test quizzes only. Enter the message to be displayed to an answerer who forgot to click checkbox at submit button before submitting form.

This applies to test quizzes only. Enter the heading for the evaluation of an answered quiz, to be displayed to the participant.

This applies to test quizzes only. Enter the text in front of the participant's identification name for the results to be displayed to the person after evaluation.

This applies to test quizzes only. Write the text in front of the number of incorrectly answered questions in the result of a quiz answer, to be displayed to the participant.

This applies to test quizzes only. Enter the text in front of the weighted sum in the results of a test quiz, as displayed to the participant.

If this entry field is left empty, the weighted sum of the result display will be omitted.

This applies to test quizzes only. Enter the text above the list to be presented to the quiz answerer. Each element of the list will show the name or number of a question together with the percentage mark obtained for that question. The two parts are separated by a colon (:). The list is sorted alphabetically/lexically by question name or number. If the entry field is empty, i.e. no text is defined, no list will be presented.

A test quiz may only be answered by the participants on a list placed in a file. This list is specified in an entry field, in plain text and with one participant per line. The line contains for each participant a name and a unique (and not easely guessed) password separated by a space, nothing else. Empty lines will be ignored. Any lines that do not meet these criteria will generate an error message, but only for the first of them and registration will not be completed properly.

Each participant is in the test identified by her/his password which must therefore be unique within the test. The password must consist of a sequence of letters and digits.

The name of the participant is included in the quiz when it is presented to be answered. The name identifies the participants answer in the presentation of answers from all participants.

Apart from the list, the name of the quiz must be specified in the usual manner, e.g. xqz.htm or just xqz.

The passwords are 6 character hexadecimal numbers generated using a random number generator. They are ofcourse different but they are not checked for 'nearness of keystrokes'. However, since the participant identifications too are unique a participant must make at least two typos to unintentinally use another participants quiz. If this is not sufficiently safe use identifications which differ more from each other.

Remember to clear the password generation checkbox after use.

Extraordinary caution is advised when using this facility. Or else the result could be a lot of time wasted by you and the recievers of your message. You could, for example, send the message to yourself only by operating with a participant list containing no other e-mail address than your own. Furthermore it is important that your own text is correct and that it refers in a clear and consistent way to the information added to the end of the text. Timing too is important. Consider carefully at which time you should send the message (i.e. click the submit button) in relation to the date and hour in which you make the quiz accessible.

The following characters are not permitted in an e-mail and will be deleted: < > | \ ' "